It appeared engine knocking was dependent on a wide variety of parameters including compression, ignition timing, cylinder temperature, air-cooled or water-cooled engines, chamber shapes, intake temperatures, lean or rich mixtures and others. B-4 was equivalent to 89-octane and the C-3 was roughly equal to the U.S. 100-octane, though lean mixture was rated around 95-octane and was poorer than the U.S. As for chemical properties, hydrocarbons are fairly inert and are not very reactive. In December, 1941 the United States had 385,000 oil wells producing 1.4 billion barrels of oil a year and 100-octane aviation gasoline capacity was at 40,000 barrels a day. Properties of Fuels (a) Propert y Gaso Dies No.2 el Fuel MethanolEthanol MTBE Propane Compresse Natural Gas d Biodiesel Chemical Formula C4 C 8 to C25 CH3OH (CH3)3COC C3H8 CH4 (83-9 … Vapor pressure initially rises with some addition of ethanol to gasoline, but the increase is greatest at 10% by volume. Their molecular … About 2.682 kilograms per liter (22.38 lb/US gal) of CO2 are produced from burning diesel fuel. + Hydrocarbon-based fuels which are gasoline, diesel, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) have been generally used in the diesel and gasoline engines as a fuel. Gasoline, when used in high-compression internal combustion engines, tends to autoignite or "detonate" causing damaging engine knocking (also called "pinging" or "pinking"). Increasingly important is FCC – fluid catalytic cracked – gasoline. Gasoline should ideally be stored in an airtight container (to prevent oxidation or water vapor mixing in with the gas) that can withstand the vapor pressure of the gasoline without venting (to prevent the loss of the more volatile fractions) at a stable cool temperature (to reduce the excess pressure from liquid expansion and to reduce the rate of any decomposition reactions). The oxidation of ethanol can form ethanol such as acetaldehyde, an organic chemical compound present in coffee, fresh bread, and fruits. On 16 June 1941 Harold Ickes, who was appointed Petroleum Coordinator for National Defense, stopped a shipment of oil from Philadelphia to Japan in light of the oil shortage on the East coast due to increased exports to Allies. [128] Among individual states, the highest gasoline tax rates, including the federal taxes as of October 2018, are found in Pennsylvania (77.1¢/gal), California (73.93¢/gal), and Washington (67.8¢/gal). European countries began replacing lead-containing additives by the end of the 1980s, and by the end of the 1990s, leaded gasoline was banned within the entire European Union. "We had about 4 1⁄2 million barrels [720,000 m3] of oil out there and all of it was vulnerable to .50 caliber bullets. The presence of these degradation products in the fuel tank or fuel lines plus a carburetor or fuel injection components makes it harder to start the engine or causes reduced engine performance. This situation led to the decision to attack the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor before proceeding with the Dutch East Indies invasion. … ; This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 22:43. [126] More recently, the U.S. experienced an upswing in gasoline prices through 2011,[127] and by 1 March 2012, the national average was $3.74 per gallon. The bulk of a typical gasoline consists of a homogeneous mixture of small, relatively lightweight hydrocarbons with between 4 and 12 carbon atoms per molecule (commonly referred to as C4–C12). In the European Union, the benzene limit is set at 1% by volume for all grades of automotive gasoline. To produce various grades, there is a blending of many refinery components, each of which promotes specific fuel qualities such as desired octane rating, volatility, and minimization of engine deposits. Initially, all the programs were related to volatility and fuel consumption, ease of starting, crankcase oil dilution and acceleration.[33]. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, "Top Tier Detergent Gasoline (Deposits, Fuel Economy, No Start, Power, Performance, Stall Concerns)", GM Bulletin, 04-06-04-047, 06-Engine/Propulsion System, June 2004. 16 The most popular additives include aromatic hydrocarbons, ethers and alcohol (usually ethanol or methanol). If the concentration is above 7.6%, the mixture is too rich and also does not ignite. As South Africa's largest city, Johannesburg, is located on the Highveld at 1,753 meters (5,751 ft) above sea level, the Automobile Association of South Africa recommends 95-octane gasoline at low altitude and 93-octane for use in Johannesburg because "The higher the altitude the lower the air pressure, and the lower the need for a high octane fuel as there is no real performance gain".[75]. Because captured supplies and oil fields would be necessary to fuel the campaign, the German high command created a special squad of oil-field experts drawn from the ranks of domestic oil industries. 8006-61-9 RTECS No. There were two grades of aviation gasoline produced in volume in Germany, the B-4 or blue grade and the C-3 or green grade, which accounted for about two-thirds of all production. Gasoline can also contain other organic compounds, such as organic ethers (deliberately added), plus small levels of contaminants, in particular organosulfur compounds (which are usually removed at the refinery). As a result of the lessons of World War I, Germany had stockpiled oil and gasoline for its blitzkrieg offensive and had annexed Austria, adding 18,000 barrels per day of oil production, but this was not sufficient to sustain the planned conquest of Europe. A fuel designated grade 130 would produce 130 percent as much power in an engine as it would running on pure iso-octane. [60] This engine had an advertised compression ratio of 10.5-to-1 and the 1958 AMA Specifications stated the octane requirement was 96-100 RON. One of the best known is the research octane number (RON). Lead replacement petrol (LRP) was developed for vehicles designed to run on leaded fuels and incompatible with unleaded fuels. The average temperature decrease is 3.6 °F (2.0 °C) per 1,000-foot (300-meter) increase in altitude, and at 40,000 feet (12 km), the temperature can approach −70 °F (−57 °C). If the CO2 emissions from ethanol combustion are considered, then about 2.271 kilograms per liter (18.95 lb/US gal) of CO2 are produced when E10 is combusted. [10], This is the earliest occurrence of the word to have been found. In Australia, the lowest grade of gasoline (RON 91) was dyed a light shade of red/orange and is now the same colour as the medium grade (RON 95) and high octane (RON 98) which are dyed yellow. With some companies required to stock 14 grades of aviation fuel, none of which could be interchanged, the effect on the refiners was negative. 18 Typical fuel stabilizers are proprietary mixtures containing mineral spirits, isopropyl alcohol, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene or other additives. Motor fuel, Motor spirits, Natural gasoline, Petrol [Note: A complex mixture of volatile hydrocarbons (paraffins, cycloparaffins, and aromatics).] With the discovery of the seriousness of the extent of environmental and health damage caused by lead compounds, however, and the incompatibility of lead with catalytic converters, governments began to mandate reductions in gasoline lead. Leaded gasoline sales were banned in New York City, Philadelphia and New Jersey. 2 [93] Pure hydrated ethanol is also available as a fuel. High-resolution gas chromatogram showing the components of petroleum refinery gasoline. Algeria replaced leaded with unleaded automotive fuel only in 2015. Puncture of an import gasoline pipeline—Spray effects may evaporate more fuel than a Buncefield-type tank overfill event. On 9 October, the German quartermaster general estimated that army vehicles were 24,000 barrels (3,800 m3) barrels short of gasoline requirements. The specific gravity of gasoline is from 0.71 to 0.77,[66] with higher densities having a greater volume of aromatics. The higher the amount of the benzene in gasoline as is clear from this statement is, the better for gasoline engines. The usage of the terms paraffin and olefin in place of the standard chemical nomenclature alkane and alkene, respectively, is particular to the oil industry. [132] The price of gas varies considerably between the summer and winter months. At the refinery, the composition varies according to the crude oils from which it is produced, the type of processing units present at the refinery, how those units are operated and which hydrocarbon streams (blendstocks) the refinery opts to use when blending the final product.[64]. In the United Kingdom, over 95% of gasoline sold has 95 RON, and is marketed as Unleaded or Premium Unleaded. Cassell discovered that a shopkeeper in Dublin named Samuel Boyd was selling counterfeit cazeline and wrote to him to ask him to stop. ", "List of countries using leaded petrol in 2011",, "Lead abatement, alcohol taxes and 10 other ways to reduce the crime rate without annoying the NRA", "Ban on lead may yet give us respite from crime". [58] Last produced in 1955, the Pratt & Whitney R-4360 Wasp Major was using 115/145 Aviation gasoline and producing 1 horsepower per cubic inch at 6.7 compression ratio (turbo-supercharging would increase this) and 1 pound of engine weight to produce 1.1 horsepower. The last of these differs from standard ethanol–gasoline blends in that it consists of 15% hydrous ethanol (i.e., the ethanol–water azeotrope) instead of the anhydrous ethanol traditionally used for blending with gasoline. Combustion of gasoline produces 2.35 kilograms per liter (19.6 lb/US gal) of carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas.[102][103]. 2 In 1891, the Shukhov cracking process became the world's first commercial method to break down heavier hydrocarbons in crude oil to increase the percentage of lighter products compared to simple distillation. The solution to the expansion of storage, transportation, finances and production was the creation of the Defense Supplies Corporation on 19 September 1940. [98] In Canada, the gasoline for marine and farm use is dyed red and is not subject to sales tax. By 30 October, the death toll had reached five. [103], Below is a table of the volumetric and mass energy density of various transportation fuels as compared with gasoline. [54][55], With the war in Europe in 1939, a reality, all predictions of 100-octane consumption were outrunning all possible production. In the same year, the U.S. Army Air Force specified fuels rated at 87 octane for its aircraft as a result of studies it conducted. 2 They were sent in to put out oil-field fires and get production going again as soon as possible. [76] By this time the Rolls-Royce Merlin 66 was developing 2,000 hp using this fuel. Gasoline may contain oxygen-containing chemicals such as ethanol, MTBE or ETBE to improve combustion. [63] Hydrocarbons with a bromine number of 10 or above can be protected with the combination of unhindered or partially hindered phenols and oil-soluble strong amine bases, such as hindered phenols. Oil and its byproducts, especially high-octane aviation gasoline, would prove to be a driving concern for how Germany conducted the war. Through captured enemy aircraft and analysis of the gasoline found in them, both the Allies and the Axis powers were aware of the quality of the aviation gasoline being produced and this prompted an octane race to achieve the advantage in aircraft performance. As early as July 1941, following the 22 June start of Operation Barbarossa, certain Luftwaffe squadrons were forced to curtail ground support missions due to shortages of aviation gasoline. In 2011, six countries[77] were still using leaded gasoline: Afghanistan, Myanmar, North Korea, Algeria, Iraq and Yemen. Schütze and Klaus Reders `` automotive fuels '' in the exhaust were engaged in combat across open country, consumption... When compared to the bulletin, the exact chemical Composition of gasoline during long-term storage volume comparison. Octane requirement was 96-100 RON product ( E10 ) is feed to phasing. 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